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驿站体系与清代远距离国家治理的有效实现

2019-01-13 14:41 来源:快乐8_快乐8平台>> 首页 刘文鹏

快乐8  qingchaochengxibingfazhanlezhongguotongyiduominzuguojiadedayitonggeju,tongshiyeyaoyingduiruhezaiyigediyuliaokuodejiangyuneikefukongjianyujulidekunnan、shixianduiguojiayouxiaozhilidewenti。erjielishiyizhantixishichuantongwangchaoguojiajiejueyuanjulixinxi、ziyuanshusongwentizuizhuyaodetujing。yizhantixidekuaile8yuwanshanshiqingchaojianliqiyitaozhengzhi、junshi、jingjiyijixinxidengyijielifangshizhangjulishusongdejizhi,zaihendachengdushangyouzhuyuzhongyangduibianjiangdiquzhixiaxingguanlitizhidequeli。erduizheiyiwentideshuli,yeyouzhuyukuaile8duisuowei“xinqingshi”depianpoyushishiyougengquanmianshenrudelejie。

  清朝快乐8驿站体系的成就

快乐8  qingdaiyizhantixiyouxingshengqude“yi”hefanbudiqude“taizhan”liangbufengoucheng。qingdaiyiqian,yiyuzhanerzishifenkaiyongde。qingchaozhenghelemingdailiuxialaideguanyi、diyunsuo,jiangqiheerweiyi,shiqichengdanxinxichuandi、wuzizhuanyunheguanyuanjiedaisanzhonggongneng。guangxuchao《qinghuidian》zai“geshengfudisuosheweiyi,shengjingsuosheyiweiyi”。erdaduoweiyudongbei、menggu、xinjianghuoqingzangdengdidaideyizhanchangbeichengwei“tai”“zhan”“tang”。“tai”chuweibujichucunzhidi。“zhan”laiziyumengguyu,ruyuandaizhizhanchi,qingdaiyeyanxilemengguyudezheiyichengwei。“tang”zezhuandijunbao。yuxingshengqusuoshe“yi”yiyang,fanbudiqudetaizhanyijubeixinxichuandi、wuzizhuanyunheguanyuanjiedaisanzhonggongneng,shiguanyuanxinshi、junduiguanbingchusairuguanjiekeshixianwufengduijie。shijishangzaimanyuzhong,“yizhan”“taizhan”yongtongyigecibiaoshi,bingwuqubie。

  xiangbimingchao,qingchaoyizhantixifazhandezuidaliangdianshixiangdongbei、beibu、xibei、xinanbianjiangdiqudeyanshen。kangxishiqi,qingchaoweilequzhuqinfanheilongjiangliuyudeeluosishili,qianghuadongbeidiqudejunshifangyutixi,tuozhanlecongshengjingkaiyuanyibeijingjilindaoheilongjiangbeiandeyizhan。zhihou,weilefangfanmengguzhungaerbuduineiwaimenggudeqinraobingyuzhijuezhan,kangxidixialingshezhichuxifengkou、gubeikou、dushikou、zhangjiakouheshahukoutongwangneimenggudiquwuluyizhan,qizhongzhangjiakouyiluyizhankeyiyanshendaowuliyasutai、kebuduodiqu,zheishiqingchaobeibuzhufangtixideyijianquwanshan。yeshizaikangximoqi,quzhunbaozangzhanzhengdejinxingtuidongleqingchaozaiyuanmingliangdaijichushang,zhongsheyouqinghai、sichuanzhilasadeliangtiaoyilu。qianlongshiqidepingzhunzhanzhenghuoshenghou,qingchaojiangtianshannanbeidiqudegelulinshitaizhandiaozhengweizhengshiyilu,wanchenglexinjiangdiquneibuyizhanxitongdegoujian。zheiyang,zaichengxineidixingshengquyizhantixidejichushang,qingchaobayizhanyoujingshiyanshendaocongdongbeidaoyilihepamiergaoyuan、congaertaishandaoqingzanggaoyuan,bingbafenbuzaizheiyijiweiguangkuodiqudezhufangdihezonghengdongxi、zhangdawanlidekalunlianjieqilai。youcizaiqingdaizhongguodeguangkuobantunei,xingchenglejudadeyizhanwangluo。anzhaomingqingshiqidelichengjisuan,youjingshizhiguangzhoudeyichengjulishi5604li,daokunmingwei5910li,zaijingkunmingzhizhongmianbianjingyebuguo7000li。yongzhengshiqi,qingchaoyuzhunbuduizhishi,beiluyoujingshidaokaerkamenggukebuduoqianxiandejulishi6280li,xiludaoxinjianghamidejuliyuewei7100li。yejiushishuo,yijingshiweihexinde7000li(yuewei3000gongli)dagaigouchengleqingchaozaiyongzhengshiyichengdezuiyuanjuli,zheigejuliyeshiqingchaozaidangshijunshizhihuidezuidabanjing。danzhiqianlongzhongqi,jingshizhilasa、yilihekashengaerdeyizhanjulizechaoguole1wanli。ruozaiyoukashengaerzhijixibiandekalun,julichaoguo1.2wanli。zheiyiweizheqingchaojunshizhihuibanjingkuodajinyibei。weici,qingchaobixujiadaduiyizhantixikuaile8heweihudechengben。qingdaiyongyuyizhandeedingfeiyongmeinianyueji300wanliangyinzi,zheihaibubaokuozaimengzangdiquyoudangdijumintigongdechayi,yebubaokuoxibeidiquzhuduojuntang,yijineidigeshengzhujunsuoshejuntangsuoxiaohaodejunfei。ergeshengfuxianzaiguojiadeedingfeiyongzhiwai,haiyaotiepeibushaorenliwuli。

  驿站体系与边疆战略安全: 以雅克萨之战与东北防御体系的构建为例

快乐8  shunzhichunian,shaedeqinlveshiliyanshendaozhongguodedongbei。youyuyizhimangyupingdingquanguoyijihoulaidesanfanzhiluan,shenzhidaokangxichunian,qingchaozaidongbeidetongzhililiangrengranfeichangboruo。chulezaishengjingdejunzhengjianzhibijiaowanzhengwai,zaishengjingyibeizhizhiheilongjiangliuyubeibu,jinsheninggutajiangjunzhenshu。zaihouqinbujihejunbaochuansongfeichangkunnandeqingkuangxia,meicishaesaoraobianjingshi,qingjunzongyaoqianlibenbo,laoshixiyuan,zhinengliqiusuzhansujue。suoyi,zaipingdingsanfanzhiluanhou,kangxidizheshouyizhangyuanzhijilaijiejuedongbeibianfangwenti。

  kangxiershisinian(1685nian)liuyue,dangshoudaoqingjundiyicigongkeyakesachengdexiaoxishi,tashuo: “zhenzishisansuiqinzhengzhihou,jiliuyiyuci。jiangqitudixianyi,shanchuanxingsheng,renwuxingqing,daotuyuanjin,beixifangwen,yiguzhuodingtianshidili,kuiyundaolu,jinjiaojiyi,buxunzhongjian,jueyimingjiangchushi,shenrutafa。”(zhongguodiyilishidanganguanbian: 《kangxiqijuzhu》,1334ye)qizhong,“daotuyuanjin”jiushiyizhandeshezhiwenti,tajiguanxidaobinglidiaopai、houqinbuji,yeguanxidaowenshuchuandi、zhanzhengzhihui。kangxiershiyinian(1682nian)bayue,kangxidipailangtan、pengchunyiweilieweiming,tanceyakesachengdexushiheheilongjiangyanandeshuilulucheng,bingzhuanmenzhufutamen: “erdenghaishi,qixiangshiziheilongjiangzhiesulizhouxingshuilu。jiyizhiesuli,qiluzhitongninggutazhe,gengzesuixingzhicanlingshiwei,xiesabusuwangshizhi。”zheishiqingchaodiyicicesuanheilongjiangyanandeshuilulicheng,yakesazhizhandexumujiucilakai,erzaiheilongjiangshezhiyizhanyeshicongzheishikaishide。

快乐8  duiyuheilongjiangyizhandeshezhi,kangxidiyizhirenweiqibudanyaoweidangshidezhanzhengkuaile8,erqiehaiyingyuyihouzhangqifangyuxianglianxi,yigaibianguoquneizhonglaoshixiyuandebeidongjumian。kangxiershisannian(1684nian)eryue,kangxidipairensheliaihunzhijilinwuladeyizhan,bingzhufushuo: “cinaichuangliyizhanzhishi,guanxijinyao,erdenghuitongbichujiangjunfudoutongxunmingshuzhidifangzhiren,xiangjiaquelianshe……bixucongzhangjiyi,shiqijiuyuankexing。”(《kangxiqijuzhu》,di1139ye)zaidazhanlailinzhiji,kangxidibingmeiyoujiyuqiucheng,ershiduizhiyizhishijinxinglefanfusikao。zheizhongfangyutixijiushizaiheilongjiangyananshebingzhufang,ranhouzaijiangtayuningguta、shengjinglianweiyiti,shibicijianbinglikesuzhi、wenshukesuda,baituoguoquneizhonggujunshenrudebulixingshi。yizhanzhishedezhanlvezuoyongjizaiyuci。

  yizhanzhisheyuheilongjiangdejunshibushushihuxiangyingxiangde,junshibushujuedingleyizhandelujing、didiandeng,yizhandeshezhiyouzaiyihougaibianlejunshibushu。

  yingxiangyizhanlujingdeshouyaoyinsushizhanlvejudiandexuanze。duiyuji—heiyizhanlaishuo,diyigejudianjiushiheilongjiangchengdexuanze。qingzhengfuzuichuzaiheilongjiangyanandezhufangdidianbingbushixuanzezaiaihun(jiheilongjiangchengsuozaidi),ershiesuli。kangxiershiyinian,yizhengwangdachenhuiyijianyizaiesulizhucheng,“aihun、humaerzhijian,esulidifangkeyizangchuan,qieyoutianlongjiuji,jilingdabingjianlimucheng,yucizhuzha,bingshesiyi。congzhi”(caotingjie: 《dongbeibianfangjiyao》)。biaomingqingchaozhongyangzuichuyouyiyiesuliweijidi,danzuizhongjiangzhufangjidigaizaiaihundeheilongjiangcheng,jianchengyongshu。jiuqiyuanyin,congdiliweizhishanglaikan,esulijusuolunzhubujiaoyuan,qiezaiheilongjiangbeian,wuziyunsongfeichangkunnan。eraihunjusuolunzhubudejuzhudijinyizhanzhidi,zaiaihunjianchengkeyishengquhenduoliqi。zaiciyihou,heilongjiangchengchengweijingongyakesachengdejunshijidi,bingyiduchengweiqingchaozhenshuheilongjiangliuyudehexinliliangsuozai。duiyuyizhanzhishelaishuo,tadexuandingyiweizheyizhanqizhilujingdexuanding,suoyizaitongyifenshangyuzhong,kangxidiyexialingcongheilongjiangchengdaojilinchengshezhishichuyizhan。

  moergenchengshiyingxiangzheitiaoyiludediergejudian。“qianyizhengwangdenghuitongyide,jinjiyumoergendifangxiuchengzhubing,zengyiyizhan,zeyingyouhubu、bingbu、lifanyuan、geweizhangjingyiming”(zhongguodiyilishidanganguanbian: 《kangxinianjianjilinzhiaihundeyizhan》,zai《lishidangan》1982niandisanqi)。moergenchengyukangxiershisinianjiuyuejuedingxiujian,kangxiershiwunianjiancheng,zheiyegaibianledangshiyiludexiujianjihua。

快乐8  heilongjiangzhijilinyizhandexiujianduigaijinhoulaidejunshibushuyeyouzuoyong。zuizhongyaodeyouliangdian,yishiqiqihaerchengdexiujian。qiqihaerchengzhidizainenjiangjiangpan,benshibukuizhan,yinzhanchengcun,yizhanzhisheshitachengweijinruheilongjianghoudediyigeshuiluyaochong。zhengyinruci,qingchaoyukangxisanshiyinian(1692nian)zaicidijiancheng,bingyizhuheilongjiangjiangjunyuci,shizhiqudaiheilongjiangchenghemoergenchengchengweiheilongjiangdejunshizhongxin。ershibaidounechengdexiujian,baidounezhanjianlihouzhujianchengcun,kangxisanshiyiniansiyue,yizhengwangdachenjianyizaicixiuchengzhubing,qiliyoushicichu“xishuilutongqu,keyikaikentiantu”(《qingshengzushilu》juanyibaiwushiwu)。shuiluzhisonghuajiang,lulujiyilu。

  youcikeyikanchu,qingchaozhongyangshijiangji—heiyizhandeshezhiyudangshidejunshibufanglianxiqilaitongyikaolvde,junshibufangyuyizhanshezhizhijiandexianghuyingxiangyefeichangmingxian。zheitiaoyiludezuoyong,gengzaiyuyihoushidongbeidiquxingchengleyiheilongjiangweiqianyan,yijilin、shengjingweiyituodezhanlvefangyutixi,shiheilongjiangliuyuyuqingchaozhongyangdezhijielianxideyijianli,dongbeibianqingkeyisuzhizhongyang,zhongyangdezhilingyekeyisudabianchui。yihandeshi,heilongjiangjiangjunxiujianqiqihaerchengzhihou,jijielianshangshuyiyanhandengweiyouqingqiujiangzhudicongaihunchengnanqianzhigengweiwennuanshushideqiqihaer。qingchaopizhunlezheiyiqingqiu。qiqihaerzaiaihunchengyinan400gonglichu,zheiyiqianyiyiweizheqingchaodeliliangzaicihouyi。erbainianhou,dangshaeshilijuantuzhonglaishi,qingchaoyouhuidaoyakesazhizhanqianlaoshixiyuandezhuangtai。

  驿站体系是清朝进行远距离资源调配的重要基础

快乐8  yizhantixikuaile8guranchengbenanggui,danjiqingchaodailailejudadejunshihezhengzhishouyi。tongguoyizhantixi,qingchaodeyizhijiebawogeleizhengzhi、jingjihejunshiziyuanyouneidixiangbianjiangdiqudediaobo。

快乐8  qingchaozaixibeibianjiangdiqudezhanzhengziyuanzhuyaolaiyuanyuzhongyuanhejiangnan。dapiliangxiang、zhuangbeidengtongguoneidiyufanbudiqulianweiyitideyizhantixiluoyibujuedishusongdaoxibeiliangluqianxian。keyishuoqingchaoshiyilaifengfudezhengzhi、jingjiziyuanheyiyizhantixiweijichude、qiangdadeziyuandiaobonengli,laimibuyuanjulizuozhandelieshi,bingzaiyuzhungaerbudezhanzhengzhongzuizhonghuosheng。

  bujinruci,zhidaoxinjiangjianshengqianyibaiyunianshijianli,jiezhuyizhandegaoxiaoxing,qingchaozhongyangjiangquanguogedidegezhongziyuanbuduandidiaowangtianshannanbeidiqu,zhichineilizhangqide、qiangdadezhengzhihejunshicunzai。jutongji,meiniangeshengjixinjianggedidexiejiyindashubaiwanliangzhiduo。yijiaqingnianjianyili、taerbahataidiqudecaizhengshouruweili,liangdimeinianshouruyinliang74wanduoliang,qizhongxiejiyinda66wanliang,zhanyitadiqucaizhengshourude87%。wulumuqidiqumeiniandexiejiyinzhan96%。zheixieyinliangdouxuyaogeshengtongguoyizhantixi,wanlizhuanshu,yunsongdaoxinjianggedi。

  驿站体系推动了清朝对边疆地区“直辖性”管理机制的建立与发展

  yizhantixidefazhanyouliyuqingchaoduifanbudiquzhuzhadejiangling、guanyuanjiqixiadidezhijieguanli,zaineidixingshengyubianjiangfanbudiqutuijinguojiazhiliyitihuajincheng。

快乐8  yiyongzhengshiqipingdingqinghailuobuzangdanjinpanluanhoushezhixiningbanshidachenweibiaozhi,qingchaoduifanbudiqudezhilifangshikaishifashengzhongyaobianhua,jiyilaibianjiangzhufangtixigoujianqiduibianjiangdiqude“zhixiaxing”guanlitizhi。zaicizhiqian,qingchaoduiyijingguishundeneiwaimenggudiqudeguanlizhuyaoyilaiyulifanyuantizhi,jitongguolongluomenggugebudewanggongguizucaiqu“jimi”zhengce,duimenggugebushiwudechuli,zhuyaopailifanyuansiyuanlinshiqianwang,bingbuzhijiepaizhuchangzhuxingdezhengzhijunshililiang。qingchaoyuyongzhengsannianshezhiqinghaibanshidachen,tongxiajundui,zhangqizhuzhaxining,zhijiejieruqinghaimenghuigebuzhuduoshiwudeguanxia。ziciyihou,qingchaopaiwangmenggugedi、tianshannanbeidelingbingjianglingzaizhanhoudaduozhuanhuaweizhufangdejiangjun、dachen,keyikanzuoqingchaojiangxiningbanshidachenmoshixiangzhenggefanbudiqudeyizhiyukuozhan。

快乐8  tongguolianjiegedideyizhan,qingchaohuangdideyiyugedidufu、jiangjun、dachendengpinfantaolungezhongjunzhengshiwu。xinjiangzhunbu、huibupingdinghou,duishifouzaixinjiangshezhixingsheng,qianlongdibiaoxiandefeichangjinshen。tayuannituixingxingshengzhi,bingpaiyangyingjuweishourenzongduzhuzhasuzhou。danyilaijingshiyuyilizhijiandetingjiwangfan,yimabenchi,zaiyuqianxianjianglingagui、shuhededengren“wanlitanxin”hou,zuizhongjuedingzhaohuiyangyingju,fangzhaoqinghaidebanshidachentizhi,zaixinjianggaixingzhufangzhidu。yizhantixidegaoxiao,shiqingchaodezheiyizhongyaojuecebiandejuzhongruoqing。erqieyilushangtingjishangyu、zouzhedepinfanwanglaiyechengweiqingchaozairuciguangkuokongjianneizhihui、guanlizheixieweigaoquanzhongzhidachenmendezhuyaoshouduan。qianlongsanshinian(1765nian),qianlongdizhishiyeerqiangbanshidacheneerjingediaochananjianggechudachendebufaxingjing,eerjingecanheqianrenhetianbanshidachenhechenglansuobokezhishi,hechengzuizhongbeizhanyujunqian。qianlongsishisannian(1778nian),wushenbanshidachenyongguixianghuangdizouheshirenbingbushilangdeguifeizhidi、“guojiu”gaoposizifanmaiyushizhishi,jieguoshigaopodeng9renbeizhu。

快乐8  kejian,zuoweiguojiadeyizhongzhengzhitongxunhejunshihouqinjichusheshi,yizhandeyanshentixianleguojiajichuxingquanlizailingtufanweineidehefaxinggoujian。taizhanchangtong,zhuanshujishi,shiqingchaozaibianjiangdiqugoujianquanlitixi、jinxingyouxiaoguojiazhilidebiyaotiaojian。yizhantixidehexinjiazhizaiyushichuantongwangchaoguojiajianliqiyitaozhengzhi、junshihejingjidengxinxiyuziyuanyijielifangshizhangjulishusongdejizhi,zaihendachengdushangyouzhuyuqingchaoduibianjiangdiquzhixiaxingguanlitizhidequeli。

  (zuozhe: liuwenpeng,xizhongguorenmindaxueqingshiyanjiusuojiaoshou,benwenxiguojiashekejijinzhongdaketi“qingdaiyizhanshiyanjiu”〔19zda207〕jieduanxingchengguo)

编辑: 杨雪

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